Skip to main content

India - Infrastructure overview

Country profile

Policies and initiatives

  • In its 2021-22 Budget the Indian government announced an investment of USD 1.4 trillion on infrastructure projects. This includes USD 16.3 billion financial allocation for the highways sector and measures taken to expand the National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) involving 7,400 projects.
  • The National Industrial Corridor which would connect major cities of India through industrial corridors was envisioned in 2006. It aims to triple industrial output in 9 years, and quadruple exports from the region in 8-9 years when it’s completed by 2040.
  • The Smart Cities Mission, launched in 2015, is a USD 14 billion urban renewal and retrofitting program by the Government of India with the mission to develop smart cities across the country, making them citizen friendly and sustainable.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, launched in 2015, with both rural and urban programmes, is an ambitious affordable housing programme which is aiming to provide housing to all by 2022.
  • The Bharatmala and Sagarmala initiatives, both launched in 2015, are national highways and ports development umbrella projects, respectively. The projects represent a major investments in the country’s logistics sector.
  • The Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana, launched in 2015, aims to provide all of rural India with a continuous supply of electricity.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana was revived in 2019 with the launch of its third phase. It aims to provide last-mile and essential connectivity to Rural India through the building of roadways.
  • The National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) for FY 2019-25 is a first of its kind, whole of government exercise to provide world-class infrastructure to citizens and improving their quality of life. It aims to improve project preparation and attract investments into infrastructure worth around USD 1.4 Trillion.
  • The NITI Aayog and the Quality Council of India launched a National Program & Project Management Policy Framework in 2020 to institutionalise Program/ Project Management practices and profession in the country to reduce overruns and bring efficiency in large-scale PPP/ public sector infrastructure projects.
  • India has a number of schemes pushing for Internet connectivity - Bharatnet, also known as National Optical Fibre Network, launched in 2011, aims to provide optical fibre connections to all Gram Panchayats (local bodies); an Optical Fibre link to India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands completed in 2020; and a public WiFi system known as PM-WANI, launched in 2020.The Indian Railways have three important projects ongoing in various stages of completion in 2020:
    • The Dedicated Freight Corridor Project comprises an Eastern and a Western corridor aimed at decongesting the quadrilateral lines and lowering logistics costs and times.
    • The Railways intends to add a number of High Speed Railways between important population centres, with the Mumbai-Ahmedabad corridor already sanctioned.
    • The Station Redevelopment Plan intends to upgrade India’s extensive network of railway stations and integrate them with other modes of transport and logistics.

Governance structure

Constitutionally, much of the basic infrastructure falls within the domain of the States while the Union retains control over infrastructure such as Railways, Communications, National Highways etc. However, the Union uses Centrally Sponsored Schemes and project funding to complement State efforts. In the Union Budget 2020–21, the Government has given a massive push to the infrastructure sector by allocating USD 24.27 billion to transport infrastructure, USD 5.36 billion to communication infrastructure, USD 10.33 billion to railways, and USD 6.85 billion to housing and urban development.

While Australia and India have a very different set of infrastructure challenges and opportunities - the rapid shift in many areas leaves several opportunities for both nations to explore.

Australia - Infrastructure overview

Country profile

Policies and initiatives

  • Infrastructure Australia, established in 2008, is Australia’s independent infrastructure advisor which advises governments, industry and the community on the investments and reforms needed to deliver better infrastructure.
  • The Snowy 2.0 project, which began in 2017, is the largest committed renewable energy project in Australia, which will provide an additional 2,000 megawatts of dispatchable, on-demand generating capacity and approximately 350,000 megawatt hours of large-scale storage to the National Electricity Market.
  • The Australian Inland Rail project, which commenced in 2018, would connect Melbourne to Brisbane, through a high speed freight line, completing a missing link in Australia’s rail system.
  • The 2020 Infrastructure Priority List revealed an Investment Pipeline of AUD 64 billion over the next 15 years.
  • The National Water Grid a series of water infrastructure projects announced in 2020 to secure Australia’s water security and growth prospects.
  • In Australia’s 2020-21 budget, the Australian Government Announced a 10 year, AUD 110 billion Infrastructure Pipeline, also known as the Infrastructure Investment Program, primarily dealing with land transport.

Governance structure

The Australian Constitution shares responsibility between Commonwealth and State governments for a large number of infrastructural concerns such as Rail, and Local Roads etc. The Commonwealth funds a multitude of projects through agencies, grants and funds to supplement State and Local infrastructure spends.

Related articles

Read the latest 'Infrastructure' research articles covering Australia and India - or submit your own.

Bilateral frameworks for cooperation between India and Australia

Trade and investment opportunity

Cooperation and collaborations

Want to amend or contribute to this page?

Found an inaccuracy, out-of-date information, or want to add something you think is important to understanding politics and international relations research collaborations between India and Australia?

Add your knowledge by contacting us and requesting a page update.

Research area tags