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India - Critical minerals overview

Country profile

Policies and initiatives

Governance structure

There exists dual jurisdiction on minerals resources in India, where “major minerals” come under the jurisdiction of the Union Government, while for “minor minerals”, State governments have the power to make rules and regulations with regard to concessions in the extraction of minor minerals and to levy and collection of royalties. Critical minerals fall under the purview of “major minerals”, and thus come under the Union’s jurisdiction. Most of India’s present production of rare earths come from the processing of Monazite sands in Kerala, which is a State Monopoly of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Any processing of beach sands for critical minerals processing requires a license from the DAE. Except for beach sands, other minerals require licenses from the Ministry of Mines as well as due clearances from the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change.

Minerals like cobalt - pictured above - are necessary for technology such as solar panels and the batteries used to fuel renewable technology (photo credit Alchemist-hp via Wikipedia)

Australia - Critical minerals overview

Country profile

Policies and initiatives

  • The Critical Minerals Facilitation Office, launched in 2020, connects Australian critical minerals projects to investors, regulators, government financing facilities and Australia's strategic partners.
  • Australia’s 2023-2030 Critical Minerals Strategy aims to promote investment in the sector, provides incentives to innovation, and connects critical minerals projects with infrastructure development.
  • Export Finance Australia provides support to critical minerals projects through its Defence Export Facility with financial expertise and solutions.
  • Launched in 2016, Geoscience Australia's Exploring for the Future Program is a concerted minerals exploration effort aimed to boost Australia’s resource potential.
  • CSIRO (Australia's National Science Agency) and the Cooperative Research Centre - Mining came together in 2016 to form Mining3, bringing together significant mining research capabilities to effectively deliver research and innovative technologies for members and the global mining industry.

Governance structure

The Australian Constitution shares responsibility between Commonwealth and State governments for Mining operations. In addition, a multitude of agencies support the minerals industry in Australia, such as Geoscience Australia, Mining3, Austrade, and CSIRO.

Related articles

Read the latest 'Critical minerals' research articles covering Australia and India - or submit your own.

Bilateral frameworks for cooperation between India and Australia

  • The  Australia-India Critical Minerals Investment Partnership will see Australia work closely with India to identify potential critical mineral investment opportunities to meet India's growing needs. During a recent meeting between Australia's Resources Minister Madeleine King and her Indian counterpart, the Honourable Minister for Parliamentary Affairs, Coal and Mines, Shri Pralhad Joshi, Australia confirmed its commitment of $5.8 million to the three-year Partnership.
  • In 2015, the Geological Survey of India (GSI) and Geoscience Australia signed an MoU in 2015 relating to deep-mining capabilities and exploration, where short and long term roadmaps would be prepared for GSI.
In July 2022, Australia welcomed a ministerial level delegation from India as a major step in the Australia–India Critical Minerals Investment Partnership.

Trade and investment opportunity

Cooperation and collaborations

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