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India - Education overview

Country profile

  • The Indian government allocated 3.5% of its GDP for educational expenditure in 2020-21.
  • According to the All India Survey on Higher Education, India’s higher education system comprised approximately 50,000 institutions, including nearly 1,000 universities, 40,000 colleges and 10,750 stand-alone institutions in 2018-2019. The system enrolled 37 million students, representing a Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of 26%, in 2018-2019. India’s higher education system is one of the largest in the world.
  • According to Educational Statistics at a Glance, India’s school education system comprised over 1.5 million schools in 2015-2016. While universal participation has been achieved at the primary school level, the GER in senior secondary school was 56% in 2015-2016. By 2018, the system enrolled 250 million students, making it one of the largest in the world.
  • India’s formal skills development sector is, by contrast, much smaller, notwithstanding efforts to incorporate vocational education and entrepreneurship skill development into school and higher education. The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship reports that 2.2% of India’s 15-59 year olds had received formal vocational training, and 8.6% had received non-formal vocational training by 2011-2012.

Policies and Initiatives

Governance structure

As education is a shared responsibility under the Indian Constitution, both the central and state governments have authority on education matters. The peak central authority is the Government of India’s Ministry of Education, however, states have education ministries and departments. Other bodies involved in regulating and maintaining education centrally include the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), the University Grants Commission (UGC), the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE). The All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) presents statistics regarding the status of higher education and the National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF) was established by the Government of India to rank higher education institutions.

Australia and India both are working together in many areas of education, including pathway programs and standardisations for further collaboration.

Australia - Education overview

Country profile

Policies and initiatives

Governance structure

The Commonwealth Government maintains responsibility for higher education, notwithstanding the role of state and territory governments in establishing enabling legislation for each university (excepting the Australian National University). The states and territories have primary responsibility for school education and vocational education and training. 

The Commonwealth Department of Education, Skills and Employment (DESE) is the primary central administrative department for education and training. The Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) specifies standards for educational qualifications, while the higher education sector is regulated by the Tertiary Education Quality Standards Agency (TEQSA). The vocational education and training sector is regulated by the Australian Skills Quality Authority (ASQA).

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