India - Agriculture overview
- According to 2021 World Bank national accounts data, agriculture and associated activities (Forestry and Fishing) contributed 16.8% to the GDP of India.
- According to 2019 World Bank national accounts data, 43% of the total employment in India is in agricultural and associated sector activities.
- According to India Brand Equity Foundation, Gross Value Added (GVA) by agriculture and associated activities to the Indian economy was estimated at Rs 21.60 lakh crore (387 billion AUD) in 2020-2021.
Policies and initiatives
- National Agriculture Market (eNAM) provides an e-marketing platform at the national level. Other initiatives like E-Sagu, Community Radio and Kisan Call centres provide agricultural information and data digitally.
- To promote sustainable agriculture and water conservation, the Government of India has launched schemes which include Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (PM KUSUM) (Solarisation of Grid-Connected Agricultural Pumps), National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) and Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) (Water Conservation and Management).
- In order to support small and marginal farmers, the government launched the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan-Dhan Yojana (PMKMY) in 2019 which provides pensions post retirement, and the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana (PMKisan) which provides income support.
- Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) (Farmers’ Welfare) accompanied by other agricultural insurance schemes have been introduced to support farmers and associated workers in agriculture.
- In 2017, the Government of India set an ambitious target to double the income of farmers by 2022-23, which corresponds to targeted annual agricultural growth of more than 14% a year.
- The Government of India announced Minimum Support Prices (MSP), under the Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA), aiming to enhance agricultural productivity, reduce cost of cultivation and secure farmers’ income in the long term, for 25 major agricultural commodities each year. MSP was first introduced in 1966-67.
In Indi while agriculture and associated sectors come under the purview of states, the central government has been instrumental in framing overarching policies through special provisions. The Ministry of Agriculture Cooperation, and Farmers’ Welfare, is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules, regulations and laws related to agriculture in India. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous body responsible for coordinating agricultural education and research in India.